What Is The Term That Describes The Production Of Red Blood Cells

Saturday July 30, 2022

What do marsupials and placentals share that monotremes lack? ONE correct answer

Secondary bony palate

External ear flaps (pinnae )

Three middle ear bones

Bilateral symmetry

DiaphragmWhat is the term that describes the production of red blood cells? (A) Hemaglutination (B) Erythrocytosis (C) Erythropoiesis (D) Erythroblastosis 2. Which one of following is WRONG about the condition anemia? (A) It can be caused by too little iron in the diet. (B) It can be caused by kidney failure. (C) It is associated with overexpression of hemoglobin. (D) It results in reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood 3. A female has a blood test. One mL of her blood is drawn, spun in a centrifuge, and the plasma volume is measured and found to be 0.6 mL. Two months later the same patient returns to the doctor and, after doing another blood test, the doctor tells the patient that she has become anemic compared to her previous visit. Which one of following plasma volume is most likely to be the woman’s data on the second visit? (A) 0.35 ml (B) 0.5 ml (C) 0.7 ml (D) 1 ml 4. Where is most of the iron in a person’s body located? (A) In the bone marrow (B) In the liver (C) In erythrocytes (D) In the kidneys 5. Which one of the following statements about blood clotting is NOT true? (A) It is the formation of a thrombus. (B) It occurs after formation of a platelet plug in a damaged vessel. (C) It requires the presence of erythrocytes. (D) It involves positive feedback by thrombin 6. Which one of the following is NOT an anticoagulant or stimulator of blood clot dissolution? (A) Vitamin K (B) Aspirin (C) Thrombin (D) Heparin 7. Which correctly describes functions of protein C? (A) It activates platelets and converts prothrombin to thrombin. (B) It inhibits clot formation and inactivates factors Va and VIIIa. (C) It binds to tissue factor and activates clotting factor VII. (D) It inactivates thrombin and converts fibrinogen to fibrin. 2/7 8. The killing of cancerous cells by the immune system is called: (A) Immune oversight. (B) Immune surveillance. (C) Tissue immunity. (D) Phagocytosis. 9. Which of the following statements about the immune system is TRUE? (A) Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes originate in bone marrow, (B) Natural killer cells produce specific antibodies that kill bacteria and virus (C) Mast cells are derived from monocytes. (D) Plasma cells are derived from T lymphocytes. 10. Which one of following statements regarding the chemical mediators of inflammatory responses is NOT true? (A) They may be secreted by cells residing in the area of injury. (B) They may be secreted by cells that enter the affected area. (C) They may be generated by enzymatic cleavage of proteins in plasma. (D) They are all peptides. 11. Chemotaxis: (A) refers to the chemical attraction of neutrophils to a site of inflammation. (B) is important only for innate immune responses. (C) is important only for adaptive immune responses. (D) refers to the engulfing of microbes and foreign molecules by macrophages. 12. Cells of the immune system capable of phagocytosis include: (A) Macrophages, NK cells, and basophils. (B) B cells, T cells, and macrophages. (C) Monocytes, neutrophils, and plasma cells. (D) Macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. 13. F 514 i 1*** **? Which of the following descriptions in not true? (A) Ventricles: chambers whose contractions produce the pressures that drive blood through the pulmonary and systemic vascular systems and back to the heart. (B) Arteries: Major sit of resistance to flow ; responsible for pattern of blood-flow distribution to the various organs : participate in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. (C) Capillaries: Major sites of nutrient, metabolic end product, and fluid exchange between blood and tissues. (D) Veins: Low-resistance conduits for blood flow back to the heart. T ?? X 11 ???? ? 14. If a vessel is to dilate to twice its previous radius, and if pressure remains constant, blood flow through this vessel would (A) increase by a factor of 16. (B) increase by a factor of 4. (C) increase by a factor of 2. (D) decrease by a factor of 16. 15. During exercise, all of the follows occur EXCEPT. (A) increased stroke volume. (B) increased heart rate. (C) shunting of blood from visceral organs to skeletal muscle and heart. (D) increased vasoconstriction of coronary arteries. 16. Regarding effects of epinephrine on the vessels, which of the following statement is correct? It stimulates adrenergic (A) a receptors to produce constriction and B receptors to produce dilation. (B) a receptors to produce dilation and B receptors to produce constriction. (C) both a and B receptors to produce dilation. (D) both a and B receptors to produce constriction. 17. What will be the major mechanism responsible for the movement of water across inside and outside of a capillary? (A) filtration (B) pinocytosis (C) exocytosis (D) vesicle transport 0 80 Le ventricular pressure 40 The following questions 18-19 are based upon the information given by Figure 1 (two point for each). Fig. 1 18. Pick the period when isovolumic relaxation occurs. (A) Between A and C (B) Between C and D (C) Between D and F (D) Between F and A 19. Pick the point where it indicates the time of closure of Aortic valves. (A) A (B) C (C)D (D) F Left ventricular volume ml 20. Under physiological condition and without any help from the nervous or endocrine system, an increase in which of the following would result in an increase in stroke volume. (A) heart rate (B) Excitation transduction (C) resting muscle length (D) total peripheral resistance 0 50 100 150 21. Stretch receptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus (A) stimulate secretion secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide. (B) serve as baroreceptors that affect activity of the vagus and sympathetic nerves. (C) serve as osmoreceptors that stimulate the release of ADH. (D) stimulate rennin secretion, thus increasing angiotensin II formation. 22. Which of the following has the highest total cross-sectional area in the body? (A) Arteries (B) Arterioles (C) Capillaries (D) Venules 23. The pressure in a capillary skeletal muscle is 35mmHg at the arteriolar end and 14mm Hg at the venular end. The interstitial pressure is Omm Hg. The colloid osmotic pressure is 25mm Hg in the capillary and 1mm Hg in the interstitium. The net force producing fluid movement across capillary wall at its arteriolar end is (A) 3mm Hg out of the capillary. (B) 3mm Hg into of the capillary. (C) 10mm Hg out of the capillary. (D) 11mm Hg out of the capillary. 24. *** (systolic pressure) , 148mmHg. 675k (diastolic pressure) 82mmHg. + 1 h A(mean arterial blood pressure) , $ ” mmHg? (A) 66 (B) 104 (C) 115 (D) 133 25. A 30-year-old quadriplegic man could not breathe spontaneously and required tracheal intubation and artificial respiration. The tracheal catheter was temporarily disconnected from the respirator to permit nursing care, the heart rate of the patient was (A) decreased (B) increased (C) no change 26. (hormone) is derived from the amino acid tyrosine me, and is largely synthesized in the (A) Insulin 4*; intestine i (B) Testosterone * 01; testis tu (C) Epinephrine * E; adrenal medulla EU (D) Growth hormone-releasing hormone ***; liver if 27. Steroidogenic cells #06# ste tu have which of the following characteristics? (A) Under stimulatory regulation from posterior pituitary hormones (B) Obtaining cholesterol largely from circulating lipoproteins (C) Having no conserved mechanism for “cholesterol homeostatic control de ?????” (D) Scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-BI) mediation of cellular cholesterol entry into mitochondria (D) stop ? ?? ?? 28. Which of the following two hormones have uppusite entect on appetite regulation? (A) Leptin N *; Ghrelin gh! ## (B) Estrogen ???;Androgen ??? (C) Cortisol ***; Aldosterone (D) Growth hormone kie *; Insulin-like growth factor-I * -I 29. A patient with hyperthyroidism HLASH ME t it had increased blood levels of thyroid hormones #AR JE * and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) PHARM *. This is most likely to be an example of (A) Thyroid tumor (B) Anterior pituitary le T A# tumor (C) Posterior pituitary FAIL # tumor (D) Negative feedback regulation & ???? 30. _(hormone) stimulates aldosterone secretion to increase renal reabsorption of (A) Epinephrine * E *;I- (B) Angiotensin II 12*** *; Na+ (C) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)* E ##; K+ (D) Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ****; Ca2+ 31. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) FR* could act through to increase blood Ca2+ level. (A) Decreasing the excretion of Na+ in the kidney (B) Increasing the activity of osteoclasts in the bone (C) Stimulating the synthesis of androgen in the gonad (D) Stimulating the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the liver 32. After running for 2 km, your adrenal gland increases the secretion of epinephrine to increase (A) Blood flow through decreasing heart rate (B) Ventilation through stimulating contraction in bronchioles sa AL (C) Blood flow through stimulating vasodilation in splanchnic arterioles pils ? (D) Blood glucose level through stimulating glycogenolysis in skeletal muscle 33. Which of the followings is a relatively biologically active form of hormone? (A) Proinsulin (B) Triiodothyronine (C) Angiotensinogen (D) 25-hydroxyvitamin D 34. Insulin could stimulate in to regulate blood glucose level. (A) Glycogenesis; liver (B) Lipolysis; adipose tissue (C) Glucagon synthesis; pancreas (D) Glycogenolysis; skeletal muscle 36. Regarding 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, which of the followings is true? (A) Stimulating intestinal absorption of Ca2+ (B) Synthesis stimulated by melatonin * (C) Synthesis in the parathyroid gland ) FRA (D) Inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts a } 37. The receptor of (hormone) mainly belongs to intracellular or nuclear receptors. (A) FSH (B) Epinephrine (C) Somatostatin (D)Triiodothyronine 38. Inhibitor of is clinically used as a therapeutic drug for diabetes ** (A) Glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) (B) Voltage-gated calcium channel (C) Dipeptide peptidase-4 (DPP-4) (D) Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) ???(1):??2??10?(??????) ih: (A)Axial and girdle muscles ( EN ) (B)Horizontal gaze center (C)Limb muscles(ne L ) (D)Alpha motor neuron (E)Golgi tendon organs ??: 39. The pathways that descend in the lateral portion of the spinal cord (**) white matter control 40. The pathways that descend in the medial portion of the spinal cord (**) white matter control 41. Control both saccadic eye movements (RH ** iL) and smooth pursuit movements (Ek 89): 42. Inverse myotatic reflex (#î 14 al 1# t&#) responds to tension in a muscle 43. also called lower motor neurons, innervate skeletal muscle and cause tendon which is sensed by the muscle contractions. :(A) Ventromedial pathways (B) Cerebellum (C) Muscle spindle (D) Supplementary motor area (SMA) ??: 44. Stretch receptor (****) within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle 45. Involved in the control of posture and locomotion; under brain stem control. 46. Error-correcting mechanism for movements 47. Planning and learning complex, internally generated movement, is also called Mental rehearsal ?????:True?(A), False?(B)??2??6?(??????) 48. Common causes of Corticospinal Tract lesions include stroke, tumors trauma 49. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement. 50. Reticulospinal tract can control of upright body posture

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