What Is The Difference Between The Central Control Of Agricultural Production In Ancient Hydraulic Civilizations And the Manorial System Of Medieval Europe

Sunday July 31, 2022

What is the difference between the central (and state) control of agricultural production in ancient hydraulic civilizations and the Manorial system of Medieval Europe? Define, describe and compare the economy politics of the systems.
2- Give a brief history of emergence of medieval universities of Europe. What was the difference between these universities and previous institutions of higher learning existed in the Ancient Civilizations?
3- What are the components of military revolution in Medieval Europe? What are the military and corresponding political consequences of this revolution (1) within Europe and (2) in the remaining world?
4- Give the outline of the scientific significance of Copernic/Kepler and Galileo briefly. What kind of progress did their discoveries’ created in science in general? What did changed about the relation between the new astronomy and the traditional knowledge/religious doctrines of cosmology?
5- Give an outline of the scientific significance of Newton and his scientific achievements? What did this achievements mean in the context of Western Scientific revolution, in comparison with the traditional science (of astronomy, physics, theories of motion etc.)?
6- Why did the scientific revolution take place in Western Europe? What were the features of the social, economic and political environment that made this possible?
7- Give an outline of the ancient theories of celestial motion (astronomy) and terrestrial motion?
8- How did the modern science (or scientific revolution) replace ancient theories of celestial and terrestrial motion with a unified theory of motion (Galileo, Newton)? Define what “Newtonian universe” or “Mechanical view of universe” means?
9- What are the defining elements of Industrial revolution? How this revolution changed the way of life in the industrialized societies (Social, political, demographic)?

10- How Medieval Europe became the first great civilization not to be run primarily by human (or animal) muscle power?
11- What does post-industrial era/societies mean? Give examples and definition.
12- How are the questions of Baconian sciences answered in the 19th century? What does this second scientific revolution mean?
13- What are Classical Sciences, Baconian sciences and the Baconian method?
14- Why engineering consulting companies are one of the distinguishing features of post-industrial societies?
15- How did the Industrial revolution cause political system changes in the Europe?
16- Why the Industrial revolution was not possible in the other regions of the world, like for some other giant economies at time (i.e. China)?
17- What was the global consequences of western industrial revolution? (Discuss the issue in the scope of colonialism, imperialism and spread of industrial revolution)
18- What is the significant features of electricity as a source and form of energy? (Industrial revolution and electricity, electrification). What electrification provides economies, and societies if you compare it with a steam engine based society?
19- Briefly write down the elements of the process: the relation between science and technology before and after modernity; what was different about scientific discoveries about electrical phenomena and the following technological/industrial applications.
20- One example given about the change in the relation between science and technology is the involvement of Chemistry as a science in textile (dye) industry. Briefly write down the elements of this process and the start of the history of scientific research in industry.
21- What is the process of industrialization of textile production? The changes in weaving, spinning, dying (not “die” :), and using new power sources other than muscle power?
22- How Medieval Europe became the first great civilization not to be run primarily by human (or animal) muscle power?
23- Discuss the difference between the technical skill of lighting a fire (a) and trying to understand what is fire (b)? Was the knowledge of (b) helpful for (a) in the early stages of history? And after the second scientific revolution, is there any change in this relation between (a) and (b)?

24- What is electro-magnetic induction and why (electrification (what is it?)) is advantageous to apply in the industry as an energy source and medium?

1- Which of the following explains the start of the western transoceanic colonialism?
a-) invention of cannon and other firearms, oceangoing ships armed with cannons, geographical discoveries for new maritime trade routes and resources
b-) use of steam engines in oceangoing ships and arming them with cannons to find countries with new sources of raw material after industrial revolution
c-) both a and b
d-) spreading Christianity to “savage” people in the newly discovered continents after geographical discoveries and provide slaves for the slave dependent economies in Europe.
2- Considering the two kinds of activity, technical skill and act of lighting fire (X), and trying to understand what is fire (Y); which of the following can be said?
a- The technical skill of lighting fire corresponds to technology and trying to understand what fire is resembles scientific activity.
b- These two kinds of activity did not collaborated throughout the much of the history of science and technology
c- After second scientific revolution knowledge of (Y) was helpful for (X)
d- Both a- and b
e- a-, b- and c- can be said.
3- Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton promoted the idea that knowledge should be based on:
a- the experiences of past civilizations
b- experimentation and observation
c- emotions and feelings
d- the teachings of the Catholic Church

4- Which statement about the Scientific Revolution in Europe is accurate?
a- The existence of natural laws was rejected.
b- Scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the universe.
c- New ideas supported the geocentric theory of Ptolemy.
d- The Bible was used to justify new scientific findings.
5- Until the Scientific Revolution, the traditional authorities were
a. Jews
b. the Catholic Church and ancient scholars.
c. navigators and explorers.
d. Aquinas and his followers.
6- Which statement about the Scientific Revolution in Europe is accurate?
a- The existence of natural laws was rejected.
b- Scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the universe.
c- New ideas supported the geocentric theory of Ptolemy.
d- The Bible was used to justify new scientific findings.
7- Which is NOT correct about institutional capitalism (IC)?
a- A diffuse network of capitalist firms spans nearly the entire economy. People don’t invest in individual business, but rather composites of market sectors via financial investment firms.
b- Is the practice of corporations holding shares in other firms. In effect, interlocking boards of directors exercise control over global economy.
c- IS the capitalistic understanding of the society, based on institutions, i.e. controlling labor rights via labor law and enabling trade unions as negotiators of workers’ rights.
d- The idea of “capitalist” as a person is dissolved within the distributed shareholder structure of transnational corporations


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