PHI 208 Final Exam / PHI 208 Final Exam (UPDATED)

Saturday July 9, 2022

Question 1. 1. According to Caroline Heldman, which of the following is a question that applies to her sexual object test? (Points : 1)

Does the image show people having sex?

Does the image show a person as something that can be bought or sold?

Does the image display a full image of a woman?

Does the image display violence against people in the image?

Question 2. 2. What would best express Colonel Nicholson’s (Alec Guinness) view regarding what makes a soldier, as expressed in the The Bridge on the River Kwai clip? (Points : 1)

The virtues of a good soldier are consistent no matter the circumstance

A good solider only acts virtuously when it benefits himself and his country.

The good soldier regards the enemy as having less intrinsic worth than one’s own people.

All of the above

Question 3. 3. In 2003, how many people died in Canada, according to the video “Dying for Care: Quality Palliative and End of Life Care in Canada”? (Points : 1)


2.2 million



Question 4. 4. What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture? (Points : 1)

Animals should be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals

Animals should never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture

Animals should only be used for medical research shown to be beneficial to humanity, never for agriculture

Animals should be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible

Question 5. 5. According to the video, “Religion, War, and Violence,” for a war to be considered just, it must (Points : 1)

be aimed at repelling aggression

have a strong probability of success

must be only used as a last resort

all of the above

Question 6. 6. In the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals we find that to act on ‘duty’ is (Points : 1)

to act from a self-seeking purpose

to act because you want to

to act out of respect for law

to act out of the fear of God

Question 7.7The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points J





Question 8. 8. What is Tom Regan’s main criticism of the contractarian approach to ethical duties? (Points : 1)

It works fine for humans without problems, but it has not yet been applied to animals

It ignores the importance of pain and suffering when it comes to ethics

It would allow all kinds of human injustice if a stronger group is able to oppress the members of a weaker group of people

He does not criticize it; he things that contractarianism, if properly understood, represents the most rational approach to ethical problems

Question 9. 9. Tom Regan’s view of animals is that (Points : 1)

They are important but not quite as important as human beings

They have rights, which means that they should never be used for human purposes

They may be ethically used because they were bred and raised for that purpose

That they may be eaten because do not have souls like we do and are lower on the food chain

Question 10. 10. Kant explains that respect for a person is: (Points : 1)

the recognition of the worth of the person’s potential contribution to society

dependent upon whether the person respects others

both A and B

none of the above

Question 11. 11. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: (Points : 1)

lies in its conformity to the moral law

lies in the value of the expected result

lies in its conformity to God’s commands

lies in its usefulness to society

Question 12. 12. According to Robinson, a person who has integrity is someone who: (Points : 1)

Does what is right, only if it is approved of by others

Does what is right, even when it is disapproved of by others

Does what is right, only when commanded to do so

Does what is right, unless they are commanded to do otherwise

None of the above

Question 13. 13. Kenneth Anderson argues that the fact that drones make the resort to force easier (Points : 1)

means that enemies will always be too afraid to attack us

does not mean that drones make the resort to force too easy

means that we should instead favor cruise missiles

all of the above

Question 14. 14Gilligan claims that females tend to see relationships as these (Points : 1)





Question 15. 15. The conventional doctrine is endorsed by: (Points : 1)


the American Medical Association

both a and b

neither a nor b

Question 16. 16. In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves (Points : 1)

total transparency and accountability

the assurance that only combatants will be targeted

the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities

all of the above

Question 17. 17. This product was pulled from Abercrombie and Fitch stores based on protests through a blog (Points : 1)


deep V-neck t-shirts

padded swimsuit tops for toddlers

yoga pants

Question 18.18Glaukon seems to think that people are (Points : 1)

Naturally benevolent

Naturally pious

Naturally just

Naturally egocentric

Question 19. 19. According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of: (Points : 1)

only the agent

only the agent and those the agent cares about

everyone, but weights the happiness of the agent more heavily

everyone, and weights everyone’s happiness equally

Question 20. 20. Kant argues that when I find someone in need: (Points : 1)

I should give whatever spare resources I have unless it makes me worse off than the person I’m trying to help

I should consider a world in which no one helped me when I was in need, recognize that I could never will such a world, and help them in the best way that I can

I should sympathize with them, but recognize that the world is better off overall if we each only look after our own interests

I should remember that as autonomous beings they are responsible for their own situation, and thus that I have no responsibility to help them out

Question 21. 21. Which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism, rather than act utilitarianism? (Points : 1)

“It’s okay to torture this person because it may save thousands of lives.”

“It’s immoral to torture this person because the pain it would cause him outweighs any potential benefits.”

“Even if torturing this person right now might be beneficial, the overall consequences of permitting torture would be harmful, and so we shouldn’t allow it in any circumstance.”

“We shouldn’t torture this person because we wouldn’t want him torturing us.”

Question 22. 22. Robinson describes magnanimity as the mean between the extremes of: (Points : 1)

Vanity and vice

Generosity and selfishness

Generosity and greed

Vanity and pusillanimity

None of the above

Question 23. 23. What moral theory does Jeremy Bentham (with whom Singer seems to agree) endorse? (Points : 1)

Moral relativism



Social Contract Theory

Question 24. 24. In the article “War and Massacre,” Thomas Nagel argues that moral absolutism (Points : 1)

is consistent with the principles of utilitarianism

can be used to justify genocide

is primarily concerned with what a person is doing

is primarily concerned with the outcome of a person’s actions

Question 25.25.  Midgley analyzes the position that each society is a separate culture with its own values. This position is known as (Points :1)

Moral relativism

Moral isolationism

Moral structuralism

Moral voluntarism

Question 26. 26. Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: (Points : 1)

are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die

are morally the same most actual cases of letting die

are morally less bad than most actual cases of letting die

are morally required

Question 27. 27. According to Leon Kass, the drive to legalize euthanasia can be largely attributed to (Points : 1)

the rise in a largely technical approach to healing

an increase in our sympathy

an increased respect for human dignity

the secularization of modern society

Question 28. 28. Nagel argues that the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were just like what other kind of action, just on a larger scale? (Points : 1)

Killing the wife and child of someone attacking you in order to distract him from his attack.

Bombing a munitions factory and killing some of the civilian workers inside

Firing at an enemy soldier and hitting an innocent bystander with a stray bullet

Bombing a convoy of enemy soldiers. 

Question 29. 29. Rachels claims that active euthanasia: (Points : 1)

sometimes leads to more suffering than passive euthanasia

sometimes leads to the same amount of suffering as passive euthanasia

sometimes leads to less suffering than passive euthanasia

all of the above

Question 30. 30. Robinson agrees with Aquinas’ idea that (Points : 1)

Honor is a subjective quality

Honor is secondary to integrity

Honor must be displayed in action

Honor is secondary to magnanimity

None of the above

Question 31. 31. Rachels claims that once it has been decided that euthanasia is desirable in a case: (Points : 1)

a moral error has already been made

it has been decided that death is no greater an evil than the patient’s continued existence

it has been decided that the patient does not have a right to life

the amount of suffering of the patient becomes irrelevant

Question 32. 32. Aristotle regards passions and feelings like anger as: (Points : 1)

a sign that one lacks rational control over one’s state of mind.

always either an excess or a defect in one’s character

capable of excess, defect, or the intermediate state characteristic of virtue

Both (a) and (b).

Question 33. 33. Michael Walzer argues that in the unique world of war, both morality and authority are (Points : 1)

radically contested

established by rules of war

established by neutral states

none of the above

Question 34.34James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: (Points : 1)




dehydration and infection

Question 35. 35. According to Colin Stokes, in this film all the heroic, wise, and villainous characters are female. (Points : 1)

The Little Mermaid

Star Wars

The Wizard of Oz

Les Miserables

Question 36. 36. This is the name for prostitutes in India who have been dedicated to a female goddess (Points : 1)





Question 37. 37. Kant claims that the moral law is given to each person by: (Points : 1)

God’s commands

one’s own rational will

one’s natural desires

social conditioning

Question 38. 38. What does Tom Regan say about the cruelty/kindness approach to animal ethics? (Points : 1)

The best way to explain animal ethics is in terms of our obligation to be kind and not cruel to animals

It is inadequate because it is possible to do wrong while being kind, and it is possible to do wrong without being deliberately cruel

It has no relevance to animal ethics because animals are cruel to each other

You have to be cruel to be kind, in the right measure

Question 39.39Hill claims that a fruitful way to think about the badness of destroying the environment is: (Points : 1)

To think about what kind of human would choose to destroy the earth

To appeal to theories about God and care for the earth

To examine people’s intuitions about whether it is right to harm the environment

To examine the rights that belong to the environment and act on the basis of those rights

Question 40.40Midgley thinks that although we can understand or appreciate other societies, (Points : 1)

We should never judge the values of other societies

We must always respect the values of other societies

We have the right to judge other societies

We cannot understand them well enough to judge them.

Question 41. 41. Aristotle claims that the function of human life is: (Points : 1)

survival and reproduction

service to the gods

rational activity

to pursue pleasure

Question 42. 42. Which of the following does Peter Singer assert about the principle of equality? (Points : 1)

People should have equal rights because they are factually equal

People with higher abilities, it stands to reason, should have greater rights

Different groups of humans should have equal rights if scientific investigation proves that there are no genetic differences in their abilities

It is a prescription that we should treat people equally regardless of their differing abilities

Question 43. 43. What is speciesism? (Points : 1)

The view that all animals should be treated equally regardless of their abilities

The view that endangered species have the right to exist

Allowing the interests of one’s own species to override the greater interests of members of other species

Protecting endangered species from extinction regardless of economic costs

Question 44. 44. According to the scene from The Bridge on the River Kwai, what is the ultimate reason Colonel Nicholson (Alec Guinness) insists that the soldiers work hard to build the best bridge possible: (Points : 1)

Because even in captivity, they know that God is watching them

So that the British forces will be able to fight the Japanese more effectively

Because the better the bridge, the more benefit they will receive and less punishment they will endure from their captors

Because it is an expression of the strength and dignity of a soldier even in captivity

Question 45. 45. A false promise, according to Kant, is: (Points : 1)

something that I could never will to be universal law

something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits the majority

something that I could will to be universal law only when it benefits me

something that I could will to be universal law only when it prevents a greater wrong

Question 46. 46. Tom Regan discusses the concept of indirect duties. Having only indirect duties towards animals means (Points : 1)

That we have a duty not to harm animals but only because of the harm it might do to humans

That we have no duties regarding animals whatsoever

That our duties towards animals are equal to our duties towards humans

That we actually have greater duties to animals than to humans

Question 47. 47. Glaukon thinks that deep in our hearts we all believe that (Points : 1)

Injustice is more profitable than justice

We will have a clearer conscience if we always stick to the laws of justice

To be unjust is to be a fool

Both B and C

Question 48. 48. How have historians tended to treat typically male tendencies versus typically female tendencies? (Points : 1)

Historians value female tendencies more highly because it is childbearing and childrearing that enable the group to survive

Female traditions have been emphasized because they reflect keep aesthetic refinement and sophistication

Male tendencies, like mathematics, warfare, and even singing have been prized more highly

No correlation has been found at all between criminal violence and childhood abuse

Question 49. 49. What, according to Noddings, do male philosophers tend to say about death (as opposed to women)? (Points : 1)

Men are more brave in the face of death than women because of their natural courageousness

Death tends to be harder on men due to their attachments to the glory of this world

Women are more able to allow their faith in the afterlife overcome their aversion to death

Male philosophers often talk as though the world or reason and abstraction is superior to the physical world of the body

Question 50. 50. Rachels concludes that: (Points : 1)

active euthanasia is always worse than passive euthanasia

passive euthanasia is always worse than active euthanasia

active euthanasia is always morally permissible

none of the above

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