Describe The Challenge Of Transporting Oxygen And Carbon Dioxide In Animals

Saturday July 9, 2022

Why are reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation important to learn? What effects do they have in our everyday life?Describe the challenge of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide in animals. In particular, discuss the polarity of oxygen and carbon dioxide gas, their consequence on solubility in the aqueous environment, and the inadequacy of passive diffusion in transporting these gases into cells and tissues. 40 20 8. What is the role of heme in myoglobin? Describe the coordination bonds that fee makes within the myoglobin structure. 9. Describe the role of the distal histidine in the binding of oxygen to the heme group. Describe how the distal histidine also affects the binding of carbon monoxide to the heme group. 100 10. Why does hemoglobin need a tetrameric structure to accomplish its function, while myoglobin can function 80 perfectly as a monomer? (This question addresses the 60 difference between the functions of myoglobin and you hemoglobin.) 11. In the plot to the right, identify which is the binding curve associated with hemoglobin and with myoglobin. Explain your answer. Then, estimate the Ke for both binding interactions 0 20 40 60 80 100 PO. (tom) 12. The binding of oxygen facilitates a conformational change in hemoglobin. Describe the change in the position of the ferrous (Fe?”) when oxygen binds, and then describe the consequence of this change on the nearby structures. 13. The structures on the right illustrate the two major states of hemoglobin. Based on the structure, identify which is oxygenated and which isn’t. Identify which structure exists in the vicinity of the lungs, and which exists in the vicinity of tissues. Explain your answers. 1.0 0 0.8 0.6 14. Hemoglobin exhibits cooperativity in binding oxygen. Briefly describe how the shift in the state from Tto R results in this cooperativity. In the graph to the right, three binding curves are illustrated. One refers to the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin that is frozen in the T state, another is for hemoglobin that is frozen in the state, and the third is for hemoglobin as it naturally exists in blood cells. Identify which is which. Explain your answer. Y(fractional saturation) 0.4 0.2 0.0 50 100 150 pO2 (tor) 200

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