Describe How The Muscle Layers Between The Ribs Assist In Respiration

Saturday July 23, 2022

Describe how the muscle layers (external and internal intercostal muscles) between the ribs assist in respiration. Explain (with respect to muscle origin and insertion) why the arrangements of the muscles produce different actions during forced respiration despite both of them are located between the ribs.

2)Describe the Circle of Willis and its components, and identify the brain regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery. Explain whether middle cerebral artery is part of the Circle of Willis.

Mr Wong was a 60-year old smoker. He was suffered from a car crash and was sent to emergency. During medical examination, he was complaint of chest pain, shortness of breath, tachycardia and tachypnea, and later developed cyanosis. Auscultation of the lungs revealed decreased breath sounds on the left hand side only. Chest X-ray indicated rib fracture and tension pneumothorax that required immediate surgical intervention. One month later, he experienced a sudden and intense headache, tremors, numbness on one side of body, slurred speech and difficulty in swallowing. He was again sent to the hospital. CT scan revealed intracranial hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm at the distal branches of the left middle cerebral artery supplying the basal ganglia. The stroke resulted in impairment in his fine motor movements such as handwriting skills.

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