Hypertension is also called high blood pressure. It is a condition where the blood is pumping harder around the body and the arteries have high blood pressure constantly. Arteriosclerosis is when the artery walls harden and the blood has to be pushed harder to get through the arteries. How are they often related? These two conditions are related because when someone gets arteriosclerosis it will lead to getting hypertension. With the arterial walls hardening, the heart has to ump faster and harder to get the blood through causing the hypertension. Why is hypertension called the ‘silent killer? Hypertension is called the silent killer because most people do not get any symptoms and could eventually leads to stroke, heart attack, heart failure and kidney failure. Name three changes in your lifestyle that might help to prevent cardiovascular disease in old age. Three things I can do to prevent cardiovascular disease is; No smoking Having a healthy diet Exercising Undesirable clot formation can occur as a result of endothelial damage due to arteriosclerosis. How does the body form undesirable clots within intact blood vessels? Blood has three factors for it to clot. The three factors are; a hyperbolically state which means the blood can clot quickly because of increased platelets or thick blood due to hydration. Vessel incongruity, meaning there is a disruption in the smooth inner lining in the blood vessel. This can happen because of smoking or naturally due to bends and manipulation of blood vessels over a lifetime. The last thing blood needs to clot is blood stasis which is blood pooling and standing still. When blood is going through a vessel it is called a parabolic refill. This means that the blood in the middle of the vessel is moving the fastest and the blood on the walls is pretty much at a standstill. This will make the blood clot if it is hyperbolically, not moving, and is contact with a damaged vessel or rough surface. Activity 5. 2: At handover you are told a patient/client is cyanic. What would you expect to observe? Occasions is a sign of tissue hypoxia. Define what this means and name three conditions where this could occur: I would be observing my patient’s skin to see if there are any changes in the color. Occasions is where the skin turns a bluish or rupee color because the tissue near the skin is low on oxygen. Tissue hypoxia is one part of the body that is not getting anywhere near the correct amount of oxygen supply. Occasions is a late sign of hypoxia but is not always accurate. Three conditions where this could occur is emphysema, chronic bronchitis and can also lead to heart failure and death. Activity 5. 3: Describe the difference between a tracheotomy and endothelial intubations. A tracheotomy is a surgically made incision in the neck into the trachea. This hole is made because there is something blocking the airways. An endothelial intubations is a medical procedure where a tube gets inserted into the trachea through the mouth or nose. The difference between the two procedures is, a tracheotomy has a surgical incision and an intubations is being placed into the throat with no incisions. Activity 5. 4: Why will a patient who is anemic complain of shortness of breath? People with anemia are complaining of shortness of breath because the body is making fewer red blood cells. Because there is fewer red blood cells, there is fewer oxygen being carried around the body and also less carbon dioxide being removed, therefore causing the shortness of breath. Activity 5. 5: Paul is 15 years old, he has a known allergy to cashew nuts, but can eat all other types of nuts with no ill effect. He is eating a chocolate bar that contains mixed nuts. He complained of tingling around the mouth and lips, developed a rapid swelling of the face, and experienced difficulty breathing and inspiration, and within a few minutes had an audible wheeze on expiration. The initial diagnosis was asthma, but Paul was also treated for an allergic reaction. What type of allergic reaction is suspected? Paul is suspected of having nonphysical. Because of how difficult it is for Paul to breath this is also suspected. Nonphysical has a more severe effect on the lungs for people who have asthma. Why has this caused problems with breathing? When you have go into unpatriotic shock, your body will start showing signs within minutes. One sign is the throat swelling up. Due to the throat swelling up it would be quite difficult to breath already but with Paul having asthma, the lungs are being effected quite severely. Activity 6. 1 : Simon is 14 years old, admitted with severe abdominal pain and fever, diagnosed with severe appendicitis. If he is left untreated what would the result be? If you let appendicitis go untreated it will get worse and rupture, causing organ failure and possibly death. Activity 6. 2: Why does a lack of fiber in the diet encourage the formation of divestiture? Fiber helps prevent constipation. Having a lack of fiber in your diet means that stools will be a lot fuller and harder to pass, causing a strain in the bowel. Straining can cause increased pressure in the colon and this will encourage the formation of divestiture. Activity 6. 3: Explain why obstruction in the common bile duct causes interference with the congestion of some foods? The bile firstly goes into the liver and then gets broken down by bile salts. The bile is then on the Journey to the gall bladder, passing through the bile ducts. If there is a blockage in the bile ducts, all the bile stays in the liver and will not be able to reach the gall bladder which will then lead to the bile not reaching the small intestine and will not be able to be digested properly. Activity 6. 4: What nursing observations of their skin, faces and urine would support the diagnosis of an obstructed bile duct? Where would these observations be recorded? Observing the patient’s skin to see if it has gone yellow Induce) is a sign of an obstructed bile duct. Also looking at their urine to see if it is any darker or pale colored stools. These observations would be recorded in their progress notes. Also on fluid balance charts, bowel charts, urinalysis and care plans. Activity 9. 1: Explain why someone who is hemorrhaging. Ii has falling symptoms: blood pressure/volume will have a decreased urine output. (Refer to your Marine textbook and the chapter on the urinary system for a flow chart that will assist you to answer the question. ) When you are hemorrhaging you are losing a lot of blood and in a very short time. Because pressure has dropped, the kidneys are not getting enough blood pumped into them, this is causing the urine output to decrease. The fluid is going other places in the body instead of leaving through the urine.